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Instrumental case in the passive

There can be two constructions in Russian
- active (the subject does the action and is actively directed to the object),
- passive (an action is performed on the subject)
Instrumental case in the passive
Компа́ния организу́ет конфере́нцию. ← активная конструкция

Subject
+
transitive
+
Object
Nominative case
verb 
Accusative case

Subject is in the Nominative case. The action is actively performed by the subject.


Конфере́нция организу́ется компа́нией. ← пассивная конструкция

Object
+
verb
+
Subject
Nominative case
that ends in -СЯ
Instrumental case

The action is performed on the subject, so the subject is in the Instrumental case. The transitive verb is replaced by the same verb with the postfix -СЯ. Object in the Nominative Case.

Often in passive constructions there is no subject → Пи́сьма отправля́ются по по́чте. (we do not know who sends letters)

Important! Only transitive verbs (used with a noun that designates a direct object, "patient") can be changed from an active to passive.

Conclusion: When you want to replace an active with a passive, you have to replace the transitive verb  by the verb with the postfix -СЯ. In passive constructions, the subject is used in the Instrumental case, and the object in the Nominative case. 

Exercises:
1. Active → passive
Известные учёные исследуют космос.
Рабочие строят дом. 
Директор подписывает документы. 
Журналисты передают последние новости с саммита.
Хирурги делают сложные операции.
Художники организуют выставку.

2. Choose active or passive verb.
Инженеры (создают / создаются) новые машины.
Культовые фильмы (создают / создаются) молодыми кинорежиссёрами.
Компьютер (проверяет / проверяется) тестовые задания.
Ответы студентов (проверяют / проверяются) преподавателем.
Администрация (открывает / открывается) новую библиотеку. 
Скоро здесь (откроет / откроется) новая станция метро. 

Picture from pexels.com.

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